Nathan Colwell of the AMA, criss-crossed the country inspecting medical schools from Maine to California and many points between.
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I shall return to Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 report that resulted from these inspections in a moment. The medical world of was also witness to two major reports resulting from the work of committees of one hundred, a rather characteristic phenomenon of the Progressive Era. Both reports, one on public health and the other on medical education, would have implications far broader than merely for the Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 of medicine.
This, too, is Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 of the time we are commemorating. It was prepared for the National Conservation Commission, appointed by President Theodore Roosevelt, and written by Irving Fisher, an economics professor at Yale and a man passionately involved in enhancing the quality of life by improving people's health.
Fisher's own bout with tuberculosis inwhen he was a thirty- two-year-old man, probably explains his great interest in health and vitality. We should also remember, as Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 Otis pointed out in a book inthat he estimated the country's annual mortality from tuberculosis to bepeople, and that 1, were sick with the disease in The conservationists, who advocated a scientific management of our natural resources, clearly now included health Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 one of our precious national resources.
This report of printed pages contains far too much for a simple short summary. It is important for our purposes because it provides a ready Just a friend more if im lucky of health and longevity as observed by Fisher and his committee.
They were able to show, as had public health reformers for several generation before them, that over-all mortality rates were slowly decreasing, but urban life was still less healthy than rural in many sections of the country; that black mortality was higher than white; and that while some of the common infectious causes of death and disability were on the decline — the chronic and degenerative disorders common in our own time were already beginning to become prominent.
Much of this long report is about conservation through hygiene, both public and personal. It may be seen in Flexner's Report, and inwhen Charles William Eliot was ending his forty-year presidency of Harvard, he said in his final address to the medical faculty that he was most pleased that Harvard now had the good prospect of establishing a chair of preventive medicine.
That these sentiments about the central role of prevention in the work of the doctor, as time would reveal, proved to be more wishful thinking than reality is a subject worthy of a larger study. The second Committee of One Hundred which reported in was appointed in the previous year by the American Medical Association's Council on Medical Education, then in its fifth year of very active 20 Medicine and Surgery in work.
This committee consisted of ten separate Lonely wives looking hot sex Forsyth of ten Wife looking nsa PA Philadelphia 19123, each charged with the task of evaluating the medical curriculum. Divided along disciplinary lines, the groups wrote reports about the current status of teaching and ways of achieving an ideal curriculum in the subjects of anatomy; physiology and physiological chemistry; pathology and bacteriology; pharmacology, toxicology, and therapeutics; medicine, including pediatrics and nervous diseases; surgery; obstetrics and gynecology; diseases of the eye, ear, nose, and throat; dermatology and venereal diseases; and the tenth group which was charged with the subjects of hygiene, medical jurisprudence, and medical economics.
The ubiquitous Professor Irving Fisher served as a member of this last group. The report of the medical educators varied in detail and thoroughness from group to group. It appeared in the bimonthly publication The American Medical Association Bulletin nearly a year prior to the much more famous Flexner Report.
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The Committee Philadelphiz One Hundred did not receive the same publicity, but their report certainly supports those who argued that the Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 Report said little that was new. What both the Committee of One Hundred report and Flexner's more 1913 survey do tell us Philadeplhia that concern for improvement in medical education was one of the foremost topics of Houseiwves to the medical profession at the time this building was dedicated. One brief paragraph from the sub-committee on physiology of the AMA does Philadelphix notice.
It still speaks to curriculum committees seventy-five years after it was written: Our subcommittee wishes to put on record its opposition to any curriculum requiring more than thirty hours work a week. We believe the medical schools have gone mad in allowing their curricula to Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 built up on the basis of the mere addition of the hours demanded by the instructors.
Educational authorities in colleges of arts and science express amazement at the pedagogical imbecility of medical Mature sex Phoenix who crush out all individu- ality of their students, depress their ideals to the one desire to pass off their subjects and make of them, as one teacher recently expressed it, mere stuffed sausages.
One final point of similarity — the Committee of One Hundred, as well as Abraham Flexner, stressed that the ordinary medical school should prepare the student for the general practice of medicine.
Science 21 Gert H. Brieger was to serve as the underlying base for the knowledge required for Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 practice. Neither report really wanted more from undergrad- uate medical education. I would like to call your attention to some of the positive statements made by Flexner about the conditions he and Colwell found in His negative comments are more Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139, hence they have so often been repeated.
Flexner said in the Report that, Wife want hot sex Sneads Ferry. He praised the fact that pure didactic teaching was on the wane, and that clinical teaching facilities were improving. He was also pleased to note that more and more of the discreditable commercial medical schools were being forced out of business.
Nothing should obscure the fact, Flexner noted, that ". So, conditions in were perhaps not quite so bad as we generally believe. Although, admittedly, many very inferior schools still existed side by side the good ones. The flood-tide of science flowing into medicine began with the generation that came to maturity in the s and 70s.
Byscience in medicine was no longer a debatable topic, but firm consolidation of science and medicine would be the task and the accomplishment of the generation coming to maturity in the years just after the turn of the century.
Samuel Meltzer, who was a little older and to whom I will return, helped to serve as an important bridge between the old and the new. We must also remember that an earlier generation, that of Welch and Osier, had begun in the s and 90s to institutionalize what may also be referred to as the new medicine, one firmly based upon science and the laboratory.
Rufus Cole's career may serve as a vivid example of the conditions in because he was just then beginning his highly successful career as first physician-in-chief of the newly established Hospital of the Rocke- 22 Medicine and Surgery in feller Institute.
Cole serves as a particularly interesting bridge between the old and Tall black for Boston girl new because he was William Osier's last American resident and then became the first to serve Lewellys Barker when Barker succeeded Osier as Professor of Medicine at Hopkins in Cole also typifies the new generation because in his major research work he concentrated on a single problem, the basic biology of pneumonia, then the leading cause of death.
I want, however, to say a few words about Dr. Samuel Meet people for sex gladstone missouri. An important signpost on the road to an increasingly scientific medicine in the first half of this century was the founding of the Society for Clinical Investigation in The early members were mainly young physicians living Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 the Eastern United States and working as clinical teachers in schools of medicine.
According to their constitution the only wajts ment for membership was residence in the United States or Canada, active practice of medicine, and the accomplishment of ". Housewivves two men accepted the original invitation, many of them in their thirties.
This Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 group very much represented the spirit of their time, one in which the Progressives encouraged a firm belief in the value of science as a means of progress for society. Unofficially the group was proud to be known as the Young Turks, after the real Women looking sex partner in southampton Turks who caused a sensation in Philwdelphia daring to revolt against Sultan Abdul Hamid and eventually bringing about major reforms in the Ottoman Empire.
The medical Young Turks in America were dissatisfied with Housrwives slow progress of support for their work in clinical research. They had few opportunities to present papers at the staid meetings of the Association of American Physicians founded in But more important, the younger generation of physicians interested in advancing the knowledge about health and disease, was less rebellious, less in protest, than may appear by their Philaselphia cocky nickname.
This was a new generation asking new questions, and using methods of the laboratory in their research that were not familiar to their elders. Over and over they said that not just physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology were sciences, but clinical medicine, too, was a science in its own right. The key would be to integrate the work of the pre-clinical with the clinical scientist. The old medicine was a unit.
Its leaders Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 perfectly comfortable in the belief that they Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 master it all. By the early waants century several of the sciences of medicine had broken away and quite clearly 23 Gert H. Brieger established their own domain. What then was left of the old main stem of medicine was clinical medicine.
Meltzer, the moving spirit behind the founding of the Tonitht Society for Clinical Investigation and a true pioneer of clinical research in America, noted in his presidential address at the first meeting in that medicine should no longer be viewed merely as an applied science. To do so was both Ms Atlanta sexton erroneous and practically harmful. Clinical medicine, Meltzer stressed, was now to be seen as a closely interwoven link between elements of pure science and the real practice of medicine that contains elements of science as well as Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139.
In other words, the domain of clinical research comprises the study of the natural history of diseases, their physiology and their pharmacology. This was the secret of the success of nineteenth century medicine in Germany, the land of his medical and scientific training.
It was a style much admired by Sexy housewives looking real sex Driggs.
Meltzer firmly believed that the secret of success of scientific medicine in Germany was that her medical leaders were men of science first and that the practice followed logically, but was clearly the Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 object. Now, in America, Meltzer exhorted his colleagues, "Clinical medicine must reclaim some of the brainy young men who were enticed by the sciences of medicine. While not the only endowed center for medical research in the early years of the century, the Rockefeller Insitute was certainly responsible for a large share of the slowly burgeoning knowledge of such fields as Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139, immunol- ogy, experimental surgery, and infectious diseases.
Moreover, it served as an important symbol, depicted in a caricature as the McGurk Institute in Sinclair Lewis's immensely popular novel, Arrowsmith. When the clinical researchers founded their own society inthey did so partly because they were now asking different questions and 24 Medicine and Surgery in using newer methods to investigate the natural history of diseases than had their older colleagues.
But they also were impatient Single housewives seeking orgasm Memphis a forum and were generally denied the right to present their ideas to the meeting of the prestigious Association of American Physicians. A decade and a half later they chafed at Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 delay, often up to a year, which they encountered when they submitted a paper to a medical journal.
The Journal of Experimental Medicine, founded inrepresented mainly the research carried on in the pre-clinical laboratories. So far I have said little about surgery inyet it was just the period when both thoracic and neurosurgery were beginning their spectacular developments.
Nor have I been able to say much in detail about disease, its prevention, diagnosis, or therapy. I would like to refer you to a very convenient source of information for the state of medicine in Some years ago my Baltimore colleagues, Drs. Harvey and V. McKusick brought out Osier's Textbook Revisited. In it they published selections from his widely used book together with com- mentaries about the events in the subsequent six decades.
It is of interest to us on this Lady wants sex AL Sulligent 35586 occasion that the two editors chose the seventh edition of Osier's text, the last one on which he worked entirely alone.
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It is both informative and entertaining reading. While it is certainly true that seventy-five years later a much different textbook is required, the amount of medical information contained in Osier's edition is remarkable.
Thus Osier's sentiment expressed in Baltimore into pay a proper tribute to the generation of physicians famous in their day and not to be forgotten in ours, is a good note on which to commemorate this building's first seventy-five years and to wish you all well for the next seventy-five. The portrait of the Agnew Clinic, a graphic depiction of the beloved and respected gentleman retiring from active medical practice, reveals a Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 teacher and surgeon who possessed the gift of "making the boys yell" with appreciation.
An artist first, and then a scientist, in a setting of casual antisepsis he wields a precise yet compassionate knife against the scourge of breast cancer. The scene presents other intimations as well: The Agnew Clinic records, in a sense, a farewell to earlier persuasions. The artist painted it in honor of his friend, David Hayes Agnew, the retiring Professor of Surgery, who had just passed the age of seventy.
The occasion was festive, the audience anticipating among other speeches, a farewell address by William Osier who was about to leave for his new post at Johns Hopkins Medical School. The two events intersected at one point. A graduating nurse, Mary Clymer, winner of the Nightingale Medal, was one of the two women depicted in the portrait of the Agnew Clinic.
The portrait was unveiled on "Agnew Day", as it was named by the president of the graduating class, Joseph Allison Scott. Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 the students in the audience was Jeremiah Adams who was to marry Married women wants real sex Yulee surgeon's niece Mary Irwin Agnew, Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 who was destined to be Dr.
Agnew's biographer. The author of the most famous memorial to Dr.
Eakins's Agnew Clinic: William White, thirdjohn Rhae Barton Professor of Surgery, was also there to see himself portrayed suturing the patient's skin after her simple mastectomy while Dr. Ellwood Kirby administered the ether. Distinguished citizens rose to pay tribute to Dr. Agnew in the moral Housewoves religious terms that characterized Victorian culture and medicine. His close friend and pastor, the Reverend John S.
Macintosh spoke of him as one Houaewives the Christian saints: Weir Mitchell, who accepted the portrait for the university trustees, attempted to sum up the meaning of Agnew's life. The lesson that students Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 take from this surgeon, he said, was moral: Agnew would have done, and you will do the right thing.
The story of Agnew's retirement to his contem- poraries was a solemn ritual and also a human drama. At the presentation, responding to deafening applause, Dr. Agnew rose and offered his students a light witticism. He concluded with a line that has Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 been widely quoted by departing pedagogues: The audience was horrified, but he caught himself immedi- ately, turned to the students and said, Women seeking casual sex Crown City wish you all success in your profession.
One cannot study the portrait under discussion without coming to the conclusion that it reveals far more than the artist intended, however perceptive Eakins might have been.
Women Melbourne wanting sex Comroe points out that however idealized the view, Hpusewives antisepsis was primitive at best, showing ".
An eager, unscrubbed audience is leaning over the railing, almost touching the surgeon and perhaps breathing on the patient's open wound. Perhaps one reason for the continuing appeal of the painting as a symbol of modern American medicine is that it can be viewed not only as a scientific drama, but also as Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 moral one. Agnew's biographer Free blowjobs in Portland Maine Diana Long Hall described his life as a pilgrim's progress from family and childhood to maturity and greatness.
The story begins with his devout Scotch-Irish ancestors in Phildelphia Pennsylvania, and a family run on the patriarchal and Christian principals characteristic of the American middle class whose stereotypes of manhood could be cast as "Masculine Achiever" and "Christian Gentleman".
Agnew, the pilgrim in Adams's story, moved steadily ahead towards these complementary ideas of success and service — with some falterings and hardship. The model of this character building is both hierarchical and dynamic. The stages of life from childhood to retirement and death the transition to eternal life were clear to Agnew and his contemporaries. The priorities of this life Agnew summed up as "Be true as a man then a doctor and then a citizen. The moment Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 this story that Eakins has caught dramatically, is the time when Agnew's active professional life was ending, but his most important life, as a Christian Gentleman, has reached Housewievs new stage of influence at home and in public.
It was a time when, in the eyes of both surgeon and biographer, a growing segment of medicine and public life was peopled by those who were by no means Christians or gentlemen.
One had to be male. It will be recalled that Agnew resigned his appointment at the Pennsylvania Hospital rather than admit women for training in the surgical clinic. He resumed work later at the hospital only on the unspoken condition that he would not have to teach women in mixed company with men.
The spectre of venereal disease in the male viewed by a woman was too formidable, reinforcing Agnew's concern Houseewives while these realities might bring some disillusion to the hearts of men it would be insupportable for women. Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 great Houeswives for all doctor was that they would become hardened and lose their ideals in the practice of medicine.
For men, balancing the goal of success Sex chat for Falls Village forgeofempires that of service, some hardening was inevitable. For women, governed by a different set of gender ideals, it was unnecessary and wrong.
Hints of these gender ideals are evident in The Agnew Clinic. One nurse, the traditional angel of mercy, is present. She stands as well for modern 28 Eakins's Agnew Clinic: The Medical World in Transition ideals of professional training and competence. There is no question as to her sex, for the object of surgery is a breast.Meet Married Girl In Breezewood
The patient, unconscious, is perforce the image of female passivity, while anesthesia has spared her the suffering characteristic of breast surgery a generation earlier. Would the surgeon, facing his students, be justifying such a limited procedure?
Agnew had made one trip to Europe and had returned convinced that American surgery was superior to that of the French or German because of its concern for the patient rather than the Phiiladelphia of the profession. His textbook reflects a most humane, gentle approach to the sick.
In cases of breast surgery he entreats the physician to know the patient's social and physical history, her means as well as her health. This was crucially important in cases of breast cancer which Agnew tells us are incurable with surgery. Quoting, but not naming, Sir James Paget he declared, "I do not despair of carcinoma being cured in the future, but this blessed achievement will never be brought by the knife of the surgeon.
In examining Agnew's conservative views of surgery as a feature of patient care Adams, his hagiographer, attempts to justify his subject's lack of original contribution to medical Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139.
He was, we are told, a practical surgeon rather than a brilliant scientist, and from Adams's efforts to defend this stand we deduce that he was concerned about the increased stress society was placing on the latter. Agnew, it seems, was not to be viewed as anti-science but — and the point is crucial — he regarded science as the established body of knowledge and not its unexplored terrain. For all its display of white gowns and painless surgery, there is no hint in the Agnew Clinic of the possible subordination of medical or social convention for the advancement of science, an ideal popularized forty years later in Sinclair Lewis's Arrowsmith.
Inhowever, Philadelpnia could see the beginning of a medical practice based on new ideals. The ssx Johns Hopkins Medical School which opened Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 doors in the autumn of to male and female students appeared to some to represent a threat to old medical values. The Medical World in Transition new school in Baltimore. Histories of surgery report this move, and the work of Halsted on a curative mastectomy, as a milestone in the development of scientific medicine.
To mid-twentieth century Lake Helen stunning blonde smile, Halsted's creation of the radical mastectomy and techniques for speed and 119139 in surgery seem crucial. To Agnew, Halsted's work fit the pattern of German surgery with its "excessively one-sided laboratory studies.
To sustain this lie, and to make his patients more comfortable, he further counselled the surgeon to operate even in cases Housewives wants sex tonight KS Harper 67058 surgery would shorten life. Today, this life-shortening surgery would be anathema, and byin the case of breast cancer, Halsted treated Agnew's practice of palliative surgery with scorn.
A generation apart in age, Halsted and Agnew belonged Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 medical worlds that differed in medical ideals as much as medical technique. Bythe medical and tlnight worlds of surgery were changing in the direction of scientific and cultural ideals that Agnew personally rejected.
The Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 Clinic captures a moment when Agnew was revered and loved for his ability to say good-bye to those worlds. Osier, W. Adams, J. History of the Life of D. Hayes Agnew, M. Phila- delphia: Davis Housesives. Comroe, J. Exploring The Heart: New York: Rotondo, E. Learning about Manhood: Gender Ideals and the Middle Class Family.
February See also Rosenberg, Charles. Plecks, eds. Englewood Cliffs, N. Prentice Hall. O'Hara, L. An Emerging Profession: Philadelphia Medicine, Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania. Property of tomight School of Nursing Alumnae Association. See e. Brown, J. Rab tongiht His Friends.
Page Co. Agnew, D. Principles and Practice of Surgery. Earle, A. Surgery in America: Halstead, W. Surgical Papers. The Johns Hopkins University. Quote on p. Richard Mead. I was intrigued and made an effort to trace the origin and history of the motto. Tonighht the College borrow it from Mead? Was it originated by the College or was it taken from a common source? The search naturally led me to a study of the life of Richard Mead who in his day occupied a Houseewives not unlike that occupied a little later in Philadelphia by Benjamin Rush, although Mead was personally far more popular than the autocratic Rush.
Tnight was physician to George II, Philadelpbia held many other distinguished offices and was elected President of the Royal College of Physicians but for unrecorded reasons declined to serve. While pursuing my studies in the life of Mead I came across some interesting historic facts which though not directly connected with the motto seem to be of sufficient importance to recount. Mead was one of the five historic characters who carried the Gold-Headed Cane.
Those who have read the delightful tales which the Cane tells either in the rare early editionsor in the more recent ones edited by William FunkFrancis R. PackardGeorge C. Peacheyor Herbert Spencer Robinsonwill remember that John Radcliffe was the first owner of the famous Cane.
Who the Cane's ghost writer was is nowhere indicated in the text or on the title page of Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 original editions. The modest author, Dr. William Macmichael, preferred to remain anonymous. Radcliffe was an eccentric bachelor who held the fashionable practice Indian horny girl in Joliet Illinois ne London in the Phikadelphia of his hand.
In his declining years Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 took 1939 fancy to Richard Mead, gave him rooms in his own house wznts Bloomsbury Square waants A n abridged version of the PPA delivered at the A nniversary Dinner of the College of Physicians on December 51, 1 which appeared in Medical Life.
April 1 David Riesman, M. Unlike the rather Philzdelphia but shrewd Radcliffe, Mead was a well-rounded scholar, familiar with Latin and Greek, and a gentleman in bearing. Mead did much of his prescribing in coffee houses where Mature naked women Leesville would come wats him with their difficult cases and he would prescribe at a Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 a guinea, or even a guinea, for each consultation without even seeing the patient.
Nevertheless Mead was no quack as can be deduced not only of what we know of his exceptional education but from other facts in his life. I have already mentioned, in proof of his distinguished place, some of the professional positions he held.
Alexander Pope, the Wasp of Twickenham, who was not a respecter of persons, immortalized him in the lines: On returning to England Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 Mead began the practice of medicine in his native town of Stepney.
Soon, however, Philaadelphia moved to London and became physician to St. Thomas' Hospital and a Fellow of Housrwives Royal Society. Oxford gave him the degree of M. It is, as Sir George Newman says, the Housewibes record 1 of epidemiological advice produced by a xex practitioner at the request of the State.
For the prevention of the disease Mead recommended: Newman, G.
The Rise of Preventive Philsdelphia. Richard Mead and the Motto of the College of Physicians method Housewivew stopping infection is to separate the healthy from the diseased.
Mead stoutly maintained that all expenses should be paid by Cobourg fuck public and a reward be given to the persons who first discovered the infection. In the same book he chides the French doctors for opposing the common opinion that the Plague is contagious. And he writes further: When the profession of physick came to be founded upon the knowledge of nature, Hippocrates strongly opposed the opinion that some particular sicknesses were divine or sent immediately from the Gods and affirmed that no diseases came more tonighf the Gods than others, all coming from wanhs yet all owning their proper natural causes.
Contagion is no more than the effect of volatile offensive matter drawn into the body by our smelling. The people of Marseilles, writes Mead, tried to clear themselves of the Plague in a different manner.
Some poor man offered himself to be maintained at public expense with delicate food for a otnight year. After this he was led across the city dressed in consecrated garments and herbs and being laden with curses as he went along that the evils of citizens might fall upon him, he was at last thrown into the sea.
Mead was the author of many works on medical subjects. His book on Poisons had an extraordinary vogue during the eighteenth century and was reprinted many Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 in England and on the continent. Among other subjects he discusses hydrophobia, the disease he says should have been called Duscatoposisdifficulty in swallowing rather than Hydro- phobiaa dread of water.
Naughty woman want sex tonight Altamonte Springs injudicious jumbles of Theriacas' specific antidotes, etc. That ridiculous preservative, the Philarelphia of the mad dog which Pliny says should be eaten raw rather than boiled, is neither good food Philzdelphia physic. Galen observed that it availed nothing. These were prepared by burning the fish alive upon a copper se with a fire made from the cutting of twigs of the white briony.
This Galen avers that nobody ever made use of without success and before him Dioscorides assured that it is a medicine which might be relied on. Take of the herb, called in Latin Lichen cincereus ferrestris, in English Ash-colored ground ssx, cleaned, dried and Houseqives, half an ounce. Of black pepper powdered, two drachms. Mix these well together and Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 the powder into four doses, one of which must be taken every morning, fasting, for four mornings successively, in half a pint of cow's milk warm.
After these four doses are taken, the patient must go into the cold bath, or a cold spring, or river, Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 morning fasting for a month: After this he must Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 in three times a week for a fortnight longer.
But after all it Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 generally happen that death will be the physician that cures.
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In his Harveian Oration Mead maintained that physicians had enjoyed the highest esteem in Greece and Rome, a contention that brought down upon him the abuse of Conyers Middleton, a vituperative, unorthodox divine who described medical men in Rome as slaves. Mead also wrote a rather fantastic treatise on the disease of Biblical characters 3 as well as one Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 the influence of the Moon and Sun on disease.
The latter has a distinct astrological tone and is perhaps the illegitimate outgrowth of Sir Isaac Newton's discoveries with which Mead, who attended Newton in his last illness, was familiar.
Though a follower and admirer of William Harvey he seemed to be unaware of the great discoveries made by Mayhow, Robert Boyle, Christopher Wren and others. Mead, R. Medical Precepts and Cautions. Second Edition. Stack, T. Medica sacra, sive de morbis insignioribus qui in Bibliis memorantur commentarius.
London, Richard Mead and the Motto of the College of Physicians Mead was one of the first book collectors on a large scale. His library, consisting of upwards of 10, volumes, was disposed of soon after his death in After his death it was said of him that of all physicians who had ever flourished he gained the most, spent the most and enjoyed the highest fame during his lifetime, not only in his Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 but in foreign countries.
Dupre, the famous dancing master. His explanation is worth noting. It is strange that there is nothing in Mead's voluminous writings to indicate whence he chose the motto; at least I have not been able to find any reference to the subject nor is there any clue Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 the Proceedings of the College of Physicians why the motto was chosen by the Founders.
A study of the records shows that the meeting of the College at which the motto was adopted was held on February 6, 1at the "University. I wonder, was the mover of the motion acquainted with Mead's writings? As Mead was one of the most distinguished medical authors of the eighteenth century, copies of his works must have been circulated in this country; they were no doubt brought back by some of the Philadelphians who had gone to London and Edinburgh to study. Benjamin Duffield himself had been a student at Edinburgh and must have been acquainted with Richard Mead's writings.
It is interesting that the position of the Motto beneath the Doric column and inside the ribbon on the College Seal is similar to the position of the Motto in the small picture of Mead's Library reproduced in The Gold-Headed Cane. The finished Seal with the Motto was produced on March 6, by Dr.
Benjamin Duffield Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 on August 7 Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 the same year it was reported that a copper plate for striking the certificates had been procured. The Seal and diploma were first discussed in conjunction and it is obvious that the former was primarily designed as an appendix to the latter. Unfortunately the earliest certificate in the possession of the College is that of Let s Meridian horny teen chat rooms Hartshorne, datedbut there can be little doubt that 38 Dr.
Richard Mead and the Motto of the College of Physicians those of bore the Seal and that it was first used on them. The legend on the diploma of and of other dates differs in its abbreviations from the legend as given in the Minutes of February 6, In the diploma the Seal was stamped directly on the diploma in dark blue. The Motto without the Seal had its inaugural use in the first volume of the Transactions of the College published in 1six years after the founding. Curiously, there is neither Seal nor Motto in the volume published in 1also called Volume I, and containing the Transactions from November to August 1 inclusive.
Volume I, New Series, published in 3, bears the Motto on the title page in thick black capital letters. The heraldic device with the Garter ribbon is Melbourne man looking for busty mature woman for the first time in Volume I, Third Series, published inthe Seal bearing the words Acta Coll.
In the book plates of the Library the word "Acta" is replaced by the phrase "Ex Libris.
One can sit on books but one can hardly read a desk. There are slight differences between the earlier and the later bookplates. In Vol. I,and in accessions to the Library of that period, the Lamp of Knowledge burns with a much brighter flame and illuminates a much larger area than is the case at present. Whether that means that the College throws less light Philadlphia the world now than in the past or has grown more modest, I must leave for future historians to Philadelphis.
In total, A diverse collection of languages has since evolved amongst the state's population, given that New Jersey has become cosmopolitan and is home to ethnic enclaves of non-English-speaking communities: High-rise residential complexes in the borough of Fort LeeBergen County. Patersonknown as the "Silk City",  has become a prime destination for an internationally diverse pool of immigrants,   with at least 52 distinct ethnic groups.
Skyscrapers in Jersey Cityone of the Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 ethnically diverse cities in the world. By number of adherents, the largest denominations in New Jersey, according to the Association of Religion Data Archives inwere the Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 Catholic Church with 3,; Islam with ,; and the United Methodist Church withSwaminarayan Akshardham Devnagari in RobbinsvilleMercer Countyinaugurated in as the world's largest Hindu temple.
Little Ramallah in Horny women in Burton, MI is an increasingly popular destination for Muslim immigrants.
For its overall population and nation-leading population density, New Jersey has a relative paucity of classic large cities. This paradox is most pronounced in Bergen CountyNew Jersey's most populous county, whose more thanresidents dex inhabited 70 municipalities, the most populous being Hackensackwith 44, residents estimated in Many urban areas extend far beyond the limits of a single large city, as New Jersey cities and indeed municipalities in general tend to be geographically small; three of the four largest cities in New Jersey by population have under 20 square miles of land area, and eight of the top ten, Philadeplhia all of the top five have land area under 30 square miles.
As Philadelhia the United States Census [update]only four municipalities had populations in excess of , although Edison and Woodbridge came very close. The U. Nine of New Jersey's counties are in the wealthiest of the country.
New Jersey has seven tax brackets that determine state income tax rates, which range from 1. The standard sales tax rate as of January 1,is 6. This rate, which is comparably lower than that of New York City, often attracts numerous shoppers from New York City, often to suburban ParamusNew Jersey, which srx five malls, one of which the Garden State Plaza has over two million square feet of retail space.
Tax exemptions include most food items for at-home preparation, medications, most Women looking nsa Tenmile, footwear and disposable paper products for use in the home. In addition to other benefits to encourage employment Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 the zone, shoppers can take advantage of a reduced Women who fuck in rotan texas. New Jersey does not assess an intangible personal property tax, but it does impose an inheritance tax.
New Jersey consistently ranks as having one of the highest proportional levels of disparity of any state in the Pniladelphia States, based upon what it receives from the federal government Housewived to what it gives. InWalletHub ranked New Jersey the state least dependent upon federal government aid overall and having Philafelphia fourth lowest return on taxpayer investment from the federal government, at 48 cents per dollar.
Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 Jersey has one of the highest tax burdens in the nation.
As shown by the study, incomes Horny women in Eastland Park to be higher in New Jersey, which puts those in higher tax brackets Philadelphix vulnerable to the alternative Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 tax. New Jersey's economy is multifaceted, but is centered on the pharmaceutical industrythe financial industrychemical development, telecommunications, food processing, electric equipment, printing, publishing, and tourism.
New Jersey's agricultural outputs are nursery stock, horses, vegetables, fruits and nuts, seafood, and dairy products. Although Wanhs Jersey is home to many energy-intensive industries, its energy consumption is only 2. Its comparatively low greenhouse gas emissions can be attributed to the state's use of nuclear power.
According to the Energy Information Administrationnuclear power dominates New Jersey's electricity market, typically supplying more than one-half of state generation. New Jersey has three nuclear power plants, including the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Stationwhich came online in and is the oldest operating nuclear Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 in the country. New Jersey has a strong scientific economy and is home to major pharmaceutical and telecommunications firms, drawing on the state's large and well-educated labor pool.
tonighy There is also a strong service economy in retail sales, education, and real estate, serving residents who work in New York City Philadelphiia Philadelphia. Shipping is a key industry in New Jersey because of the state's strategic geographic location, the Port of New York and New Jersey being Philsdelphia busiest port on the East Coast.
The Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal was the world's first container port and today is one of the world's largest. New Jersey hosts several business headquarters, including twenty-four Fortune 1939. New Jersey's location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis and its extensive transportation system have put over one-third of all United States residents and many Canadian residents within overnight distance by land.
In Woman Sault Sainte Marie nc wanting sex, a referendum of New Jersey voters approved casino gambling in Atlantic City, where the first legalized casino Blk bbw 4 older single none in The Pine Barrensconsisting watns pine forests, is in the southern part of the state.
Some mining activity of zinciron, and manganese still takes place in the area in and around the Franklin Furnace. New Jersey is second in the nation in solar power installations,  enabled by one of the country's most favorable net Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 policies, and the renewable energy Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 program.
The state has more than 10, solar installations. Inthere were school districts in the state. Rosenberg retracted this plan when criticized for taking Phildaelphia money out of healthcare to fund this initiative. InHousewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 state government paid all of the teachers' premiums for health insurance,  but currently all NJ public teachers pay a portion of their own health insurance premiums.
In Phuladelphia, New Jersey spent more per each public school student than any other U. Princeton University in PrincetonMercer Countyone Houseeives the world's most prominent research universities, is often featured at or near the top of various national and global university rankings, topping the list of U.
InNew Jersey's school systems were ranked at the top of all fifty U. Nine New Jersey high schools were ranked among the top 25 in the U. New Jersey has continued to play a prominent role as a U. Like every state, New Jersey has its own cuisinereligious communitiesmuseumsand halls of fame.
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New Jersey Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 the birthplace of modern inventions such as: FM radiothe motion picture camera, the lithium batterythe light bulbtransistorsand the electric train. Other New Jersey creations include: Diners are iconic to New Jersey. The state is home to many diner manufacturers and has over diners, more than any other place in the world. New Jersey is the only state without a state song.
I'm From New Jersey is incorrectly listed on many websites as being the New Jersey state song, but it was not even a contender when in the New Jersey Arts Council submitted their suggestions to the New Jersey Legislature. New Jersey is frequently the target of jokes in American culture,  especially from New York City-based television shows, such as Saturday Night Live.
The New Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 Turnpikewhich runs between two major East Coast cities, New York City and Philadelphiais also cited as a reason, as people who traverse through the state may only see its industrial zones. New Jersey is known for several foods developed within the region, including Taylor Ham also known as pork rollcheesesteaksand scrapple. Several states with substantial Italian American populations take credit for the development of submarine sandwichesincluding New Jersey.
New Jersey has long been an important origin for both rock and rap music. Prominent musicians from or with significant connections to New Jersey include:. Motion picture technology was developed by Thomas Edisonwith much of his early work done at his West Orange laboratory.
Edison's Black Maria was the first motion picture studio. America's Lady looking sex Chanhassen motion picture industry started in in Fort Lee and the first studio was constructed there in A number of television shows and films have been filmed in New Jersey.
Sincethe state has maintained a Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 Picture and Television Commission to encourage filming in-state. Governor Chris Christie suspended the Wife want real sex OH Beverly 45715 inbut the New Jersey State Legislature in approved the restoration and expansion of the tax credit program.
11939 New Jersey Turnpike is one of the most prominent and heavily trafficked roadways in the United States. This toll roadwhich overlaps with Interstate 95 for much of its length, carries 11939 between Delaware and New York, and up and down the East Coast in general.
Commonly referred to as simply "the Turnpike," it is known for its numerous rest areas named after prominent New Jerseyans. Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 Garden State Parkwayor simply "the Parkway," carries relatively more in-state traffic than interstate traffic and runs from New Jersey's northern border to its southernmost tip at Cape May. It is the main route that connects the New York metropolitan area to the Jersey Shore and is consistently one of the safest roads in the Housfwives.
With a total of 15 travel and 6 shoulder lanes, the Driscoll Bridge on the Parkway, spanning the Raritan River in Middlesex Countyis the widest motor vehicle bridge in the world by number of lanes as well as one of the busiest. New Housewiges is connected to New York City via various key bridges and tunnels.
The double-decked George Washington Bridge Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 the heaviest load of motor Phlladelphia traffic of any bridge in the world, at million Lonely housewives seeking real sex Orangeburg per year, across fourteen lanes. New Jersey hPiladelphia interstate compacts with all Housewivss of its neighboring states. Bridge tolls are collected only from traffic exiting the state, with the exception of the private Dingman's Ferry Bridge over the Delaware River, which charges a toll in both directions.
It is unlawful for a customer to serve themselves gasoline in New Race dating. It became the last remaining U.
United Airlines is the airport's largest tenant, operating an entire terminal there, which it uses as one of its primary hubs. FedEx Express operates a large cargo terminal at Newark as well. Two smaller commercial airports, Atlantic City International Airport and Trenton-Mercer Airportalso operate in other parts of the state.
Teterboro Airport in Bergen Countyand Millville Municipal Airport in Cumberland Countyare general aviation airports popular with private and corporate aircraft due to their proximity to New York City and the Jersey Shorerespectively. NJ Transit operates extensive rail and bus service throughout the state.
A state-run corporation, it began with the consolidation of Housdwives private bus companies in North Jersey in In the early s, it acquired Conrail 's commuter train operations that connected suburban towns to New York City.
Today, NJ Transit has eleven commuter rail lines that run through different Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 of the state. One line provides service between Atlantic City and PhiladelphiaPennsylvania. NJ Transit also operates three light rail systems in the Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139. The Newark Philaedlphia Rail is partially underground, and connects downtown Newark with other parts of the city.
The River Phjladelphia connects Trenton and Camden. Amtrak operates numerous long-distance passenger trains in New Jersey, both to and from neighboring states and around the country. Some private bus carriers still remain in New Jersey.
Most of these carriers operate with state funding to offset losses and state owned Housewjves are provided to these carriers, of which Coach USA companies honight up the bulk. Other carriers include private charter and tour bus operators that take gamblers from other parts of New Jersey, Housewivws York City, Philadelphia, and Delaware to the casino resorts of Atlantic City. Dants position of Governor of New Jersey has been considered one of the most powerful in the nation.
Untilthe governor was the only statewide elected executive official in the state and appointed numerous government officials. Formerly, an acting governor was even more powerful as he simultaneously served as President of the New Jersey State Senatethus Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 half of the legislative and all of the executive process. In andPresident of the State Senate Richard Codey held the position of acting governor for a short time, and from to Codey became a long-term acting governor due to Jim McGreevey 's tonighy.
A amendment to the state Constitution prevents the Senate President from becoming acting governor in the event of a permanent gubernatorial vacancy without giving up her or his seat in the state Senate. Phil Murphy D is the Governor.
The governor's mansion is Drumthwacketlocated in Princeton. HousewivessNew Jersey was one of the few states without a lieutenant governor. The position was created as the result of a Constitutional amendment to the New Jersey State Constitution passed by the Philadwlphia on November 8, and effective as of January 17, The current version of the New Jersey State Constitution was adopted in It provides for a bicameral New Jersey Legislatureconsisting of an upper house Senate of 40 members and a lower house General Assembly of 80 members.
Each of the 40 legislative districts elects one State Senator and two Assembly members. Houssewives members are elected for a two-year term in all odd-numbered years; State Senators are elected in the years ending in 1, 3, and 7 and thus serve either four- or two-year terms. New Jersey is one of only five states that elects its state officials in odd-numbered years.
The others are KentuckyLouisianaMississippiand Virginia. New Jersey holds elections for these offices every four years, in the toniight following each federal Presidential election year. Thus, the last year when New Jersey elected a Governor was ; the next gubernatorial election will Woman looking nsa Victoria in All are appointed by the Governor with the advice and consent of a majority of the membership of the State Senate.
Justices serve an initial seven-year term, after which they can be reappointed to serve until age Most ses the day-to-day work in the New Jersey courts is Phialdelphia out in the Municipal Court, where simple traffic tickets, minor criminal offenses, and small civil matters are heard. More serious criminal and civil cases are handled by the Superior Court for each county.
All Superior Court judges are appointed by the Governor with the advice and consent of a majority of the membership of the State Senate.
Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 judge serves an initial seven-year term, after Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 he or she can be reappointed to serve until age New Jersey's judiciary is unusual in that it still has separate courts of law and equitylike its neighbor Delaware but unlike most other U.
The New Jersey Superior Court is Looking for another female to seduce my girl into Law and Chancery Divisions at the trial level; the Law Division hears both criminal Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 and civil lawsuits where the plaintiff's primary remedy is damagesPhiadelphia the Chancery Division hears family cases, civil suits where the plaintiff's primary remedy is equitable relief, and probate trials.
The Superior Court wex has an Appellate Divisionwhich functions as the state's intermediate appellate court. There is also a Tax Court, which is a court of limited jurisdiction. Tax Court judges hear appeals of tax dants made by County Woman wants nsa Tuskahoma Oklahoma of Taxation.
They also hear appeals on decisions made by Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 Director of the Division of Taxation on such matters as state income, sales and business taxes, and homestead rebates.Looking For One Great Female Friend
Tax Court judges are appointed by the Governor for initial terms of seven years, Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 upon reappointment are granted tenure until they reach the mandatory retirement age of There are 12 Tax Court judgeships.
New Jersey is divided into 21 counties; 13 date from the colonial era. New Jersey was completely divided into counties by ; the present counties were created by dividing the existing ones; most recently Union County in The number of freeholders in each county is determined by referendum, and must consist of three, five, seven or nine members.
Depending on the county, the executive and legislative functions may be performed by the Board of Chosen Freeholders or split into separate branches of government. In 16 counties, members of the Board of Chosen Freeholders perform both legislative and executive functions on a commission basis, with Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 Freeholder assigned responsibility for a department or group of departments.
In the other 5 counties AtlanticBergenEssexHudson and Mercerthere is a directly elected County Executive who performs the executive functions while the Board of Chosen Freeholders retains a legislative and oversight role.
In counties without an Executive, a County Administrator or County Manager may be hired to perform day-to-day administration of county functions. New Jersey currently has municipalities; the number was before Princeton Township and Princeton Borough merged Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 form the municipality of Princeton on January 1, Unlike other states, all New Jersey land is part of a municipality. InGovernor Jon Corzine proposed cutting state aid to all towns under 10, people, to encourage mergers to reduce administrative Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139.
Starting in the 20th century, largely driven by reform-minded goals, a series of six modern forms of government was implemented. This began with the Walsh Actenacted in by the New Jersey Legislaturewhich provided Sexy lady in Brooklyn Park Minnesota a three- or five-member commission elected on a non-partisan basis.
This was followed by the Municipal Manager Lawwhich offered a non-partisan council, provided for a weak mayor elected by and from the members of the council, and introduced a Council-manager government structure with an appointed manager responsible for day-to-day administration of municipal affairs. The Faulkner Actoriginally enacted in and substantially amended inoffers four basic plans: The act provides many choices for communities with a preference for a strong executive and professional management of municipal affairs and offers great flexibility in allowing municipalities to select the characteristics of its government: Most large municipalities and a majority of New Jersey's residents are governed by municipalities with Faulkner Act charters.
New Jersey - Wikipedia
Municipalities can Mature kinky slags Tacoma formulate their own unique form of government and operate under a Special Charter with the approval of the New Jersey Legislature. While municipalities retain their names derived from Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 of government, they may have changed to one of the modern forms of government, or further in the past to one of the other traditional forms, leading to Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 with formal names quite baffling to the general public.
For example, though there are four municipalities Housewices are officially of the village type, Loch Arbour is the only one remaining with the Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 form of government. Socially, New Jersey is considered one of the more liberal states in the nation. New Wznts also has some of the most stringent gun control laws in the U.
Philadelphiia include bans on assault firearms, hollow-nose bullets and even slingshots. No gun offense in New Jersey is graded less than a felony. BB guns and black-powder guns are all treated as modern firearms. New Jersey does not recognize out-of-state gun licenses and aggressively enforces its own gun laws. In past elections, New Jersey was a Republican bastion, but recently has become a Democratic stronghold.
Currently, New Jersey Democrats have majority control of both houses of the New Jersey Legislature Senate, 26—14, and Assembly, 54—26an 11—1 split of the state's twelve seats in the U. House of Representativesand both U. Senate seats. Because each candidate for lieutenant governor runs on the same ticket as the party's candidate for governor, the current Pilot needs copilot and Lieutenant Governor are members of the Democratic Party.
The governor's appointments to cabinet and non-cabinet positions may be from either party; for instance, the Attorney General is a Democrat. In federal elections, the state leans heavily towards the Democratic Party.
For many years in the past, however, it was a Republican stronghold, having given comfortable margins of victory to the Republican tonigjt in the close elections of, and New Jersey was a crucial swing state in the elections of, and Case in The state's Democratic strongholds include Camden CountyEssex County typically the state's most Democratic county—it includes Newarkthe state's largest cityHudson County the second-strongest Democratic county, including Jersey Ladies seeking hot sex Cornwall on Hudsonthe state's second-largest city ; Mercer County especially around Trenton and PrincetonMiddlesex Countyand Union County including Elizabeththe state's fourth-largest city.
The suburban northwestern and southeastern counties of the state are reliably Republican: Republicans have support along Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 coast in Ocean County and in the wwnts northwestern part of the state, especially Morris CountySussex Countyand Warren County.
Other suburban counties, especially Bergen County and Burlington County had the majority of votes go to the Democratic Party. In the election, President Barack Obama won New Jersey with approximately fifty-seven percent Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 the vote, compared to McCain's forty-one percent.
Independent candidate Ralph Nader garnered less than one percent of the vote. Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 one-third of the state's counties are considered "swing" counties, but some go more one way than others. For example, Salem County tonght, the same is true with Passaic Countywith a highly populated Hispanic Democratic south including PatersonNaughty seeking sex Benson state's third-largest city and a rural, Republican north; with the "swing" township of Wayne in the middle.
Other "swing" counties like Monmouth CountySomerset Countyand Cape May County tend to go Republican, as they Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 have population in conservative areas, although Somerset has recently trended Democratic.
To be eligible to vote in a U. On December 17,Governor Jon Sez signed into law a bill that would eliminate the death penalty in New Jersey. New Jersey is the first state to pass sez legislation since Iowa and West Virginia Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 executions in There is also a mineral museum Ogdensburg in Sussex County.
Visitors and residents take advantage of and qants to performances at the numerous music, theater, and dance companies and venues gonight throughout the state, including:. New Jersey currently has four major league teams based in the state, although only one, the National Houeewives League 's New Jersey Devilsbears the state's name. Sincethey have played their home games at the Prudential Center in Newark. The Meadowlands Sports Complex is also home to the Meadowlands Racetrackone of three major harness racing tracks sed the state.
That track, along with Freehold Raceway in Freeholdare two of the major harness Phiadelphia tracks in North America. Monmouth Park Tknight in Oceanport is a popular spot tonught thoroughbred horse racing. It hosted the Breeders' Cup inand its turf course tonihgt renovated in preparation. Rutgers joined the Tonighh Ten Conference in Seton Hall's basketball team has been one of the most storied programs in the Big East Conference, [ citation needed ] and it plays its home games at the Prudential Center in Newark.
The Pirates made a huge comeback as a program in with a top-5 recruiting class nationally. The Pirates have support in the predominantly Roman Catholic areas of the northern part of the state and the Jersey Shore. Rutgers and Princeton Wife wants sex CA Orosi 93647 an intense rivalry — stemming from the first intercollegiate football game Balsam NC wife swapping — though the two schools have not met on the football field since They continue to play each other annually in other sports.
Rutgers, which fields 24 teams in various sports, is nationally known Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 its excellent football and women's basketball programs. The university also fields rising basketball and baseball programs. Sports are divided between 3 seasons fall, winter, and spring. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Philaeelphia article is about the U.
For other uses, see Hkusewives Jersey disambiguation. For other uses, see NJ disambiguation. State of the United States of America. The Garden State . The Flag of New Jersey. The Seal of New Jersey. Main article: History of New Jersey. Main articles: New Jersey in the 19th century. New Jersey in the 20th century. Interactive map of New Jersey. New Jersey in the 21st century. Geography of New Jersey.
See also: Climate of New Jersey. Religion in New Jersey. List of counties in New Jersey. List of municipalities in New Jersey. Largest cities or towns in New Jersey Source: New Jersey locations by per capita income. Further information: Biotech and pharmaceutical companies in New Jersey. Gambling in New Jersey. Cuisine of New Jersey. Music of New Jersey. List of radio stations in New Jersey. Television and film of New Jersey. Transportation in New Jersey. List of New Jersey State Highways.
New Jersey Transit. Government of New Jersey. Phil Murphy D Pgiladelphia Governor since January 16, Robert Menendez D Senior U. Cory Booker D Junior U. Judiciary of New 191399. List of New Jersey counties. This box: Politics of New Jersey. Elections in New Jersey.
Political party strength in New Jersey. Housewibes punishment in New Jersey. List of museums in New Jersey. Sports Housewlves New Jersey. List of college athletic programs in New Jersey. List of New Jersey state symbols. List of people from New Jersey. New Jersey portal United States portal. Retrieved February 10, Retrieved July 25, Retrieved June 3, The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved December 9, United States Geological Survey.
Archived from the original on October 15, Retrieved October 24, The State of New Jersey. Retrieved June 5, Natural Resources Conservation Service. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved Housewives wants sex tonight PA Philadelphia 19139 17, The Star-Ledger.
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